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plant diversity and its scope

Copyright Leaf Group Ltd. // Leaf Group Lifestyle. Gravity. Areas of high diversity for vascular plants, both for numbers of species and of endemic species, are by now well established and in agreement across a variety of studies using a wide range of data from different sources. Whether or not it is true that biological classification must be developed in less species‐rich temperate regions, it is certainly the case that modern biodiversity research in diverse tropical regions is still under‐represented (Prance, Beentje, Dransfield, & Johns, 2000; Stocks, Seales, Paniagua, Maehr, & Bruna, 2008). It seems a curious fact now that in Linnaeus’ time the size and distribution of the tropical flora was considered to be both relatively small and uniform, known as it was then from the widespread occurrence of common, ruderal species transported between relatively few trading outposts established and maintained by European colonists (Stearn, 1988). Appropriate topics include innovative applications or methods of species distribution modelling; the application of island biogeographic principles to conservation; developing paradigms, models and frameworks for conservation planning and risk assessment; or identifying the agents of glo… We are very grateful to the organizers for the invitation to participate in the National Geographic “A World of Plants” symposium, and to other participants, the editor, and two anonymous reviewers whose comments have improved the final manuscript. Excluding or correcting both these types of records, current activities using these data for assessing randomly selected samples of species from major lineages for Plants Under Pressure give a mean Extent of Occurrence for threatened plant species of 3,030 km2 (the upper threshold for Vulnerable species is 20,000 km2), which increases more than threefold to 9,627 km2 with additional in‐house geo‐referencing of already available records, while only an extra 38%, on average, is attributable to further literature records. Later in the 18th century, several of the ‘acolytes’ who had studied under Linnaeus and then set off to explore new areas of the globe had themselves succumbed to unfortunate ends. We present a review of global studies of plant diversity, including novel analyses from our own work, and highlight areas of the world that are consistently identified by multiple studies utilizing varied data sets as being particularly rich in plant species. Our aim here is to review the range of recent studies of the global distribution of plant diversity and highlight how much is currently known, in order that progress towards conserving it may be assessed. The first uses published species numbers from floras, checklists, and taxonomic revisions and protologs at a more‐or‐less country scale (Figure 1); the second re‐analyses published estimates of species richness from floras, sub‐national checklists, and local field studies within the framework of a global classification of distinct ecoregions (Figure 2); and the third presents a stacked species richness map from species distribution modeling approaches for a randomly selected sample of vascular plant species (Figure 3). In his own popular travelogue documenting his Beagle voyage, Darwin (1839) wrote of the Brazilian coastal forests that “Among the scenes which are deeply impressed on my mind, none exceed in sublimity the primeval forests undefaced by the hand of man … no one can stand in these solitudes unmoved, and not feel that there is more in man than the mere breath of his body”, while Wallace wrote of the Amazon forests that “There is, however, one natural feature of this country, the interest and grandeur of which may be fully appreciated in a single walk: it is the ‘virgin forest.’ Here no one who has any feeling of the magnificent and the sublime can be disappointed” (Knapp, 1999), or as Bates (1863) later aptly described it “the teeming profusion of Nature” (Stearn, 1977). Figure 3 suggests that such an approach can produce a finer scale pattern of variation consistent with coarser scale studies based on more species, as long as the set of species being modeled is representative of plant diversity more broadly (as a random or a stratified sample, for example). Such analyses have therefore tended to focus on estimating species richness by extrapolation from what smaller studies have been carried out within different biomes, which runs the risk of overlooking rare species not captured, or simply not identified, in individual studies. Match. Plant Ecology and Diversity is an international journal for communicating results and novel ideas in plant science, in print and online, six times a year. This is also true in the home garden, as demonstrated by the demise of photinia (Photinia x fraseri, USDA zones 8 through 9) and Leyland cypress (x Cupressocyparis leylandii, USDA zones 6 through 10). In this article we present three analyses of global patterns of vascular plant species richness. Land plants fall into three major groups, the nonvascular plants, the seedless vascular plants, and the seed plants. Herbaria as loose compendia of dried, pressed specimens mounted on individual sheets of paper, which could thus easily be re‐classified and to which new collections could easily be added, were well‐known by Linnaeus’ time (Stearn, 1957), and thanks largely as his own example became the general practice from the later 18th century onward; modern plant collecting and collection‐based research utilizing preserved specimens continues to this day (Funk, 2018; Heberling, Prather, & Tonsor, 2019). In an article published by the University of Kentucky Department of Horticulture, however, Extension Professor William M. Fountain boils it down as the degree of variation in a system in any defined area, from a home landscape to a continent. Of course this is not to say that it may not exist elsewhere in the wild where it has not yet been collected, but that is a separate issue. Plant Systematics and Evolution publishes research on the origin and maintenance of plant diversity in all photosynthetic lineages, including flowering plants, gymnosperms, bryophytes, ferns and lycophytes, and algae. We illustrate this with analyses of geographical patterns of plant diversity from three different data types with differing degrees of geographical and ecological resolution. Classification of Plant Kingdom. However, partly due to the history of exploration and differential rates of societal and cultural development, they are found predominantly in the northern hemisphere and more developed parts of the southern hemisphere rather than those countries home to the greatest diversity and endemism of plant species (http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/map/). In the absence of comprehensive detailed information on the location of every vascular plant species on Earth, studies of plant diversity and its spatial variation have had to resort to proxies for this information. Southern China and Vietnam; Malaysia and Sumatra; Borneo; Southern Mexico and Central America; Guiana Highlands; Andes mountain chain, Gulf of Guinea and Cameroon Highlands; Ethiopian Highlands; Albertine Rift; Eastern Arc Mountains; SW Cape Region; Madagascar, Mountains of the Sino‐Himalayan region; southern China and Vietnam; peninsular Malaysia through to New Guinea, Using specimen records already available in GBIF …, … with additional geo‐referencing of GBIF records without co‐ordinates, … with further literature records additionally geo‐referenced. How many herbarium specimens are needed to detect threatened species? Angiosperms represent approximately 80 percent of all the known green plants now living. Brazil in the Neotropics; in Africa in the Gulf of Guinea, the Albertine Rift, Ethiopian Plateau, and Eastern Arc mountains south to the Drakensberg and Cape region of South Africa; and in Asia in the Sino‐Himalayan region, and the mountains of New Guinea and eastern Australia. As the world’s most important fiber crop and a major source of seed oil and protein, cotton is cultivated in more than 75 countries around the globe [].Cotton fibers are seed trichomes, up to 65 mm long, composed of almost pure cellulose, and provide a unique single-celled model system for studying cell elongation and cell wall biogenesis []. Weeds are commonly considered a threat to biodiversity, yet interactions between native and exotic species in grasslands are poorly understood and reported results vary depending on the spatial scale of study, the factors controlled for and the response variables analysed. This advantage is limited, however, by the paucity of available data: there is neither consensus on how biomes or ecosystems ought to be defined (e.g., Särkinen, Iganci, Linares‐Palomino, Simon, & Prado, 2011), and for this reason nor there is comprehensive information of which species belong to which ecosystem. "The world is so full of a number of things, I'm sure we should all be as happy as kings," sings poet Robert Louis Stevenson in an apt summary of the wealth and diversity in nature's plant kingdom. Don't plant the same veggies year after year. Herbaria of such collections are distributed throughout the world, some larger, some smaller, and together represent the collective efforts of thousands of botanical collectors over hundreds of years. Global conservation priorities for pteridophytes, The Sampled Red List Index for Plants, Phase II: Ground‐truthing specimen‐based conservation assessments, Green Plants in the Red: A baseline global assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants, Applications of the IUCN Red List: Towards a global barometer for plant diversity, Biodiversity: Where's hot and where's not, World geographical scheme for recording plant distributions. 1916 – The term biological diversity was used first by J. Arthur Harris in "The Variable Desert," Scientific American, JSTOR 6182: "The bare statement that the region contains a flora rich in genera and species and of diverse geographic origin or affinity is entirely inadequate as a description of its real biological diversity." If the conservation of plant diversity is to be effective in the long term, it is important to measure it against an established baseline with a range of appropriate metrics. The 6th mass extinction of life of earth (Barnosky et al., 2011; Ceballos et al., 2015), with extinction rates 1,000 times greater than background rates (De Vos, Joppa, Gittleman, Stephens, & Pimm, 2015), has galvanized attempts to collate and consolidate existing knowledge of the world's plants. Although many of the data sources on which it is based go back decades, it is only recently (2010) that an attempt at a consolidated global checklist of land plants (http://www.theplantlist.org) has been undertaken, for the first time in more than 100 years. American culture values the neat and the familiar in home landscapes, and nurseries offer the plants consumers seek; as a result, the biodiversity of the nation declines. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, In the absence of comprehensive detailed information on the location of every vascular plant species on Earth, studies of plant diversity and its spatial variation have had to resort to proxies for this information. Of the 22% plant species assessed in one of the three threatened categories of the IUCN Red List (Brummitt, Bachman, Griffiths‐Lee, et al., 2015), some 59% were assessed using Criterion B, geographic range, and almost half (49%) were assessed using Criterion B1, Extent of Occurrence, estimated from geo‐referenced specimen records (as each assessment seeks to utilize all of the five of the Red List categories that are applicable, these species may also be assessed under additional criteria) (Brummitt, Bachman, Aletrari, et al., 2015). She holds a JD in law from U.C. Diversity and Distributions publishes papers that deal with conservation biogeography which is defined as "the application of biogeographical principles, theories, and analyses to problems regarding biodiversity conservation" (Whittaker et al. Plant Diversity (formerly Plant Diversity and Resources) is an international plant science journal that publishes substantial original research and review papers that advance our understanding of the past and current distribution of plants, contribute to the development of … It divides plants into taxonomic groups, using morphological, anatomical, embryological, chromosomal and chemical data. Early attempts to characterize patterns in the distribution of the world's plants can be dated back to the time of Schouw (1823), and many subsequent attempts (e.g., Engler, 1924; Good, 1974) have produced largely similar classifications (Takhtajan, 1986), dividing the world geographically into between 25 (Schouw, 1823) and 43 (Mattick, 1964) separate floristic regions that represent areas of similar botanical composition at genus or species levels, but largely independent of numbers of species, which may vary widely between temperate and tropical regions. Modern estimates of the total diversity of land plants are now in the region of 400,000 known species (Nic Lughadha et al., 2016) with another 15% or so estimated to be still awaiting discovery (Joppa et al., 2011): of this total, vascular plants are estimated to represent 383,671 species while bryophytes represent 20,240 species (of which 12,754 are mosses (Crosby et al., 2000) and 7,486 are liverworts and hornworts (Söderström et al. Don't plant overused species and space related specimens far apart in your yard. She has written hundreds of gardening and plant articles for sites like eHow Gardening, Gardening Know How and Hunker. These were then stacked by summing the total number of species projected within each pixel; species with too few records to model effectively were added to the stacked richness map simply as individual rasterized points. Beagle Round the World, Estimating the normal background rate of species extinction, The global spectrum of plant form and function, An ecoregion‐based approach to protecting half the terrestrial realm, Novel methods improve prediction of species’ distributions from occurrence data, Übersicht über die Florenreiche und Florengebiete der Erde, The commonness of rarity: Global and future distribution of rarity across land plants, Conservation evaluation and phylogenetic diversity, A review of methods for the assessment of prediction errors in conservation presence/absence models, Preserving the evolutionary potential of floras in biodiversity hotspots, New Brazilian floristic list highlights conservation challenges, Mapping species distributions: Spatial inference and prediction, Collections‐based science in the 21st Century, Global distribution and conservation of rare and threatened vertebrates, Predicting species distributions for conservation decisions, World ferns: checklist of ferns and lycophytes of the world, Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. It has been claimed that modern biological classification could only have originated in temperate regions with a smaller and thus more manageable flora (Stearn, 1988), and not the overwhelming diversity of tropical vegetation, where “monstrous plants enough to confound all the methods of botany hitherto thought upon” (Stearn, 1977) were found. These organisms decompose plant debris and convert nitrogen, enhancing and enriching the place plants' roots call home. How global is the global biodiversity information facility? estimated 300,000 species of higher plants. The following 19th century is widely considered to have been the high water mark of biological exploration, as first European and later local scientists and explorers pressed ever further into remote regions. Plant diversity on Earth is represented by an . AIMS AND SCOPE. In aiming to identify areas of greatest scientific interest or, increasingly, areas in most urgent need of conservation, separate intellectual traditions in plant geography have led to different ways to conceptualize the enormous range of plant diversity over the surface of the Earth. We publish papers that deal with the application of biogeographical principles, theories, and analyses to problems concerning the conservation of biodiversity. Supporting services such as soil formation and nutrient cycling Identify factors affecting plant growth and its adaptation. Since the food web partially depends on the plants that grow in it, the more different species you plant, the richer and healthier the soil. The large quantity of plant specimen records now available perhaps permits a different approach, as these data may be aggregated into whatever larger spatial unit is of interest. This preferential adaptation means that the Karner blue butterfly is highly dependent on the presence of wild lupine plants for its continued survival. FAO/G. This modern age of biological synthesis is a result of methodological developments (phylogenetics) and technological change (molecular biology and modern computing capabilities), coupled with an increasing awareness of the current biodiversity crisis across our ever‐more globalized world (Pimm et al., 2014). Almost every time a species has been wiped out in large numbers, it grew in exclusive stands, such as the American chestnut tree (Castanea dentata, U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 8), largely eliminated by a host-specific fungus. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Terminological and methodological aspects of the mapping and analysis of the global biodiversity, Geographic patterns of vascular plant diversity at continental to global scales, The Naturalist on the River Amazons, a Record of Adventures, Habits of Animals, Sketches of Brazilian and Indian Life, and Aspects of Nature Under the Equator, During Eleven Years of Travel, GlobalTreeSearch: The first complete global database of tree species and country distributions, Global trait–environment relationships of plant communities, Where are threatened ferns found? In order to prioritize areas, what is required is some way of combining these approaches, to maximize the representation of plant diversity for conservation. Learn. The spatial data were split into training and testing data using a k‐fold approach, each spatial point assigned to one of four groups and each model run four times, so that each spatial point was used once for training a model and once for testing a different model run. Biology- Plant Diversity. A similar but unrelated approach advocated by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), again independent of patterns of species richness and in this case also of patterns of species distribution, is identifying 846 distinct ecological units (“ecoregions”) by vegetation type with or without dominant plant taxa (Dinerstein et al., 2017; Olson et al., 2001). multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made of cellulose. Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? Since this time it has long been recognized that tropical regions house the greatest diversity of plant species, the new discovery of which will continue for many years into the future (Joppa, Roberts, Myers, & Pimm, 2011). Biopests are usually picky, relying on only one species or a handful of closely related species. As monitoring biodiversity moves beyond counting species (Cernansky, 2017) and potentially even to outer space (Luque, Pettorelli, Vihervaara, & Wegmann, 2018; Skidmore & Pettorelli, 2015), large‐scale studies of all the varied aspects of plant diversity remain much needed. Many studies use what information is available (e.g., Díaz et al., 2015), especially from publicly available repositories such as TRY (Kattge et al., 2011), often regardless of whether or not these data are those most appropriate. This has tended to be counts (complete or partial) of species within large geo‐political units of little ecological coherence (e.g., Pimm et al., 2014; Figure 1) or estimates of species richness within large pre‐defined ecological or biogeographic units (e.g., Kier et al., 2005; Figure 2). Together with his co-authors, Schuldt evaluated extensive data on plant and insect diversity from two of the world's largest biodiversity experiments: the Jena Experiment and BEF-China. Threats to Plants. Methodology/Principal Findings. It's worth your time to seek out different species, especially native species; not only will this help in creating biodiversity in your community, but it will also reward you with fewer garden pests and plant problems. At a regional scale, overall areas of high species richness thus consistently highlight—but at greater spatial resolution—those parts of the world are also indicated by more comprehensive but much coarser geographical data (Table 1; Barthlott et al., 1999, 2007; Kier et al., 2005, 2009; Kreft & Jetz, 2007; Mutke & Barthlott, 2005). (2005). Aims and scope. As biologists we know that this cannot be so, since evolution means that every species is more closely related to some species than it is to others. Learn more. Rationale, scope and general principles. These can loosely be characterized as: co‐incident distributions of similar plants; regions of similar vegetation; and zones of similar numbers of species. Within the limitations of each data type, all three approaches identify broadly the same areas of plant species richness at their respective spatial resolution, which also are largely congruent with areas of high diversity for terrestrial tetrapod species (Grenyer et al., 2006; Jenkins, Pimm, & Joppa, 2013). Plants, People, Planet aims to publish outstanding research across the plant sciences, placing it firmly within the context of its wider relevance to people, society and the planet. Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\): The Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) is a rare butterfly that lives only in open areas with few trees or shrubs, such as pine barrens and oak savannas. Learn biology quiz plant diversity with free interactive flashcards. Ensemble models were made for each species by averaging the projected likelihood of occurrence given by each model run that met the AUC threshold, irrespective of the modeling approach, and weighted by the AUC value of the respective model run. Crop diversity is an aspect of biodiversity important for food security. Although inevitably far from perfect and still evolving, such an electronic, searchable list represents an enormous achievement in modern botanical knowledge, and has itself been informed by and informed in turn a number of global checklists for smaller plant lineages (Crosby, Magill, Allen, & He, 2000; Hassler, 2016; Söderström et al. The spatial extent used varied for each species, following Senay, Worner, and Ikeda (2013). These days, botanical or plant diversity is an oft-heard concept, but it can be difficult to determine what it means to the individual gardener or homeowner. The richer the soil food web, the more fertile the soil. The tropical areas support more diverse plant and animal communities than the desert and polar areas, as for examples, tropical forest has a higher species diversity as compared to a timber plantation. However, as comprehensive knowledge of the world's plants is still progressing, and distributions even at country level are time consuming to compile accurately, this means detailed, comparative estimates of plant endemism are still lacking globally (Pimm et al., 2014), and what there is has been estimated for geo‐political entities at Level 3 of the TDWG geographical scheme for recording plant distributions (Brummitt, 2001). the type of life cycle that plants undergo. However, these invaluable compilations have been compiled from published data sources, and for most species for which data are publicly available even such simple information as in which countries does each species occur is often missing, and full floras or even national‐level checklists of species are not widely available for many countries, for example Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, and Sudan. alternation of generation. Again, areas of the neotropics with high topographic diversity emerge as richest for vascular plant species, from montane regions of southern Mexico south through Central America to the Andean mountain chain, together with the cerrado biome and southeastern Brazil, and in Asia the Sino‐Himalayan region and southern China south through SE Asia to New Guinea, followed in Africa by coastal Cameroon and Gabon, the areas of the Albertine Rift and Eastern Arc Mountains in east Africa, and the Drakensberg and Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. “How can you govern a country which has 246 varieties of cheese?” Charles de Gaulle lamented, reflecting the big issue that many human beings have with diversity. domesticated and cultivated by humans ov er the . These days, botanical or plant diversity is an oft-heard concept, but it can be difficult to determine what it means to the individual gardener or homeowner. B. Napolitano Madagascar, Southern Mexico and Central America; the Andes; Amazonia; SE Brazil, Gulf of Guinea (Cameroon, Gabon); Albertine Rift; SW Cape Region and Pondoland region of South Africa; eastern Madagascar, Southern Mexico and Central America; Panama to eastern Andes; Guiana Highlands and western Amazonia; SE Brazil, Gulf of Guinea (Cameroon, Gabon); Ethiopian Highlands; Albertine Rift; SW Cape Region and Pondoland region of South Africa; Madagascar and islands of the Indian Ocean, Mountains of the Sino‐Himalayan region; Malaysia and Sumatra; Borneo; Philippines; New Guinea and islands of western Pacific, Malaysia and Sumatra; Borneo; Philippines; New Guinea and islands of western Pacific, Guiana Highlands; eastern Andes and western Amazonia; SE Brazil, Mountains of the Sino‐Himalayan region; southern China and Vietnam; Malaysia and Sumatra, Southern Mexico and Central America; Guiana Highlands; eastern Andes and western Amazonia; SE Brazil. Flashcards. Scope of Maintenance: Plant maintenance services provide attention for the maintenance of machines and equipment’s due to their frequent use and strategic position in the entire production function.

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